Pakistani warplanes pounded North Waziristan on the fourth day of clashes with militants, prompting families to flee the remote tribal region.
The Pakistani military targeted militant hideouts near the town of Mir Ali on Tuesday. Officials say more than 250 militants and soldiers have been killed so far in the battles near the Afghan border.
Residents living in nearby villages say air strikes destroyed homes, killing dozens of civilians and injuring many more.
A Pakistani military spokesman, Major General Wahid Arshad told Pakistani Dawn television that he could not confirm reports of civilian casualties, but he said civilians were fleeing the area.
The army says the fighting began after pro-Taleban militants ambushed a military convoy late Saturday near Mir Ali. Government troops and helicopter gunships then retaliated.
Also Tuesday, a bomb exploded in a music shop in the city of Peshawar in North West Frontier Province, wounding at least 12 people.
Taleban and al-Qaida militants have taken refuge in Pakistan's tribal regions since U.S.- led forces ended Taleban rule in neighboring Afghanistan in 2001.
Attacks on Pakistani security forces have surged since the collapse in July of a peace deal between the government and pro-Taleban militants. The deal was designed to drive out foreign al-Qaida fighters from the tribal region.