U.S. President George Bush is in Germany for the Group of Eight summit opening Wednesday in the Baltic Sea resort of Heiligendamm.
Mr. Bush flew to Germany from Prague where he accused Russia of backsliding on reforms.
Mr. Bush told a conference of pro-democracy activists that reforms in Russia that once promised to empower citizens have been derailed, with troubling implications for democratic development.
A spokesman for Russian President Vladimir Putin disputed the Bush accusations, calling Russia a democratic state that shares global and European values.
Mr. Bush also criticized China's leaders for trying to open their nation's economy without opening its political system. But he said the United States will continue building relationships with these countries despite the disagreements.
President Bush discussed U.S. plans to build a missile defense system in Eastern Europe with Czech leaders, saying Russia has nothing to fear. He said the Cold War is over and that Russia is not an enemy.
Mr. Putin has threatened to point Russian missiles at European targets if the system is built.
Mr. Bush told the pro-democracy activists in Prague that those pursuing democracy will receive unwavering U.S. support. He specifically mentioned his meetings with dissidents from what he termed the world's worst dictatorships, including Belarus, Burma, Cuba, Sudan, Vietnam and Zimbabwe.